Robert Gagne’s theory of instruction has provided a great number of valuable ideas to instructional design, trainers and teachers. Gagne believes that effective instruction should reach beyond traditional learning theories. He supports cumulative teaching that transitions from simple to complex skills. Gagne's nine steps of instruction are a series of steps to guide the instructor or instructional designer. According to the theory, using this series should help to insure that the learner understands the desired objective. Gagne suggests that learning tasks for intellectual skills can be organized in hierarchy according to complexity: stimulus recognition, response generation, procedure following rule application and problem- solving. The theory outlines nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes:
1. Gain Attention: Evokes the learners' interest in the subject. For example, show students a map of a country to talk about it.
2. Inform Learner of Objective: Let the learners know what they will be learning. For example, today we will learn some traditions of this country.
3. Recall Prior Knowledge: Get the learners to think about what they already know. For example, has anyone know something about this country?
4. Present Material: Teach the topic: such as teaching language through culture. For example, show student how the diverse culture affects this country.
5. Provide Guided Learning: Help the learners follow along as the topic is presented. For example, show pictures about traditional events.
6- Elicit Performance Ask learners to do what they have been taught. For example, give students some cultural elements to compare with theirs
7- Provide Feedback: Inform learners of their performance. For example, check students’ performance for help.
8- Assess Performance: Evaluate learners on their knowledge of the topic. For example, evaluate the students’ writing on the topic
9- Enhance Retention and Transfer: Aid learners in remembering and applying the new skill. For example, give students assignment/ home work to talk about their culture based on what they learned in the previous lessons. For more information watch this video:
Merrill’s First Principles:-
Merrill defines the first principle of instruction as a prescriptive design principle on which various instructional design theories and models are in essential agreement.
Merrill's first and central principle of instruction is a task-centered learning. Task centered learning is not problem –based learning but it share some features. Task- centered principle which learning is promoted when learners are engaged in a task- centered instructional strategy involving a progression of whole real- world tasks. Concisely the whole instructional process is based on four principles:-
• Activation Principle: learning in promoted and encouraged when learners activate relevant cognitive structures by being directed to demonstrate relevant previous experience.
• Demonstration Principle: learning also is promoted when learners observe a demonstration of the skills to be learned that is consistent with topic being taught, also demonstration will enhance when learners are guided relate general to specific instances or observe media that is relevant to the topic.
• Application Principle: learning is promoted when learners engage in application of the new knowledge they learned with the quick feedback from the teacher.
• Integration principle: learning is promoted when learners integrate their new knowledge into their everyday life and application also enhances when learners create, invent or explore personal ways to use their new knowledge and skills. Both theories has emphasize on student centered by starting to give students some tasks that related to their previous knowledge as a recall to prior experience. Students connect their prior knowledge with current learning situation to explore new knowledge. Instructor engages his students into a task to learn new skills. For example, aids learners in remembering and applying the new skills (talk about diversity in school). I think the theories are related to together as Merrill summarized the Gagne’s nine steps in to four principles both started to warm up the learners using his previous knowledge and experiences with clear learning objectives. I can use both theories to help my students learn about the diverse culture within their school and through this diversity unity can be made happen. Students can prepare topics on culture. And participate in groups to search online for more I formation. Students will organize their online findings for presentation. Thus, will enhance students’ cultural awareness and respect to each other culture. Meanwhile they can be able to apply these skills to organize cultural events in their communities.
- I am working with Defense Language Institute at Monterey Bay. I have received my education in Sudan, Yemen and America. I have got MA in educational technology, 2010 at Chapman university, Monterey City California and Post master at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. (UNCG). in 2004and MBA in Sudan in 1998. I got American citizenship in August 2008. I am married; I have five children , two in college and one in high school.Suheil still early grade one and Suheib is a baby of three years old, playing at home. My email address is firstname.lastname@example.org. Phone number is 8312246829.